Washington University in St. Louis
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About the Tyson Research Center

Insects of Tyson

Dragonflies and Damselflies
Grasshoppers and Allies


Butterflies and Skippers

Butterflies Known to Occur at Washington University's Tyson Research Center
by Richard S. Thoma, 1998.
Additional species added by Yvonne Homeyer and Jim Ziebol

Pieridae - Sulfurs and Whites
  • Colias eurytheme Alfalfa Butterfly
  • Colias. philodice Clouded Sulfur
  • Phoebis sennae Cloudless Sulfur
  • Zerene cesonia Southern Dogface
  • Eurema lisa Little Sulfur
  • Eurema nicippe Sleepy Sulfur
  • Nathalis iole Dainty Dwarf Sulfur
  • Anthocharis midea Falcate Orangetip
  • Euchloe olympia Olympian Marblewing
  • Pontia protodice Checkered White
  • Artegeia rapae Cabbage Butterfly
Danaidae - Milkweed Butterflies
Nymphalidae - Brush-footed Butterflies
  • Argynninae - Fritillaries
  • Speyeria cybele Great-spangled Fritillary
  • Speyeria idalia Regal Fritillary (?)
  • Euptoieta claudia Variegated Fritillary
Melitaeinae - Crescentspots and Checkerspots
  • Euphydryas phaeton Baltimore
  • Charidryas nycteis Silvery Checkerspot
  • Phyciodes tharos Pearl Crescent
Vanessinae - Thistle Butterflies
  • Vanessa atalanta - Red Admiral
  • Vanessa cardui Painted Lady
  • Vanessa virginiensis American Painted lady
  • Junonia coenia Buckeye
Nymphalinae - Anglewings
  • Polygonia interrogationis Question Mark
  • Polygonia comma Comma
  • Polygonia progne Gray Comma
  • Nymphalis antiopa Mourning Cloak
Limenitinae - Admirals, Viceroy and Others
  • Limenitis astyanax Red-spotted Purple
  • Limenitis archippus Viceroy
Apaturinae - Hackberry Butterflies and Emperors
  • Anaea andria Goatweed Butterfly
  • Asterocampa celtis Hackberry Butterfly
  • Asterocampa clyton Tawny Emperor
Libytheidae - Snout Butterflies
  • Libytheana bachmanii Snout Butterfly
Satyridae - Wood Satyrs
  • Megisto cymela Little Wood Satyr
  • Cercyonis pegala Common Wood Nymph
  • Enodia anthedon Northern Pearly-eye
Lycaenidae - Coppers, Hairstreaks, Blues, Harvesters and Metalmarks
Theclinae - Hairstreaks
  • Feniseca tarquinius Harvester
  • Callophrys gryneus Juniper (Olive) Hairstreak
  • Strymon melinus Gray Hairstreak
  • Satyrium edwardsii Edwards Hairstreak
  • Satyrium calanus Banded Hairstreak
  • Satyrium liparops strigosum Striped Hairstreak
  • Incisalia henrici Henry's Elfin
  • Incisalia niphon Eastern Pine Elfin
  • Incisalia irus Frosted Elfin (?)
Lycaeninae - Coppers
  • Hyllolycaena hyllus Bronze Copper
  • Lycaena phlaeas - American Copper
Plebeiinae - Blues
  • Everes comyntas Eastern-tailed Blue
  • Hemiargus isola Reakirts Blue
  • Celastrina ladon Spring Azure
Hesperiidae - Skippers
  • Epargyreus clarus Silver-spotted Skipper
  • Achalarus lyciades Hoary Edge Skipper
  • Thorybes pylades Northern Cloudywing
  • Thorybes bathyllus Southern Cloudywing
  • Staphylus hayhurstii Hayhurst's Scallopwing
  • Erynnis juvenalis Juvenal's Duskywing
  • Erynnis horatius Horace's Duskywing
  • Erynnis
  • brizo Sleepy Duskywing
  • Erynnis baptisiae Wild Indigo Duskywing
  • Pyrgus communis Common Checkered Skipper
  • Pholisora catullus Common Sootywing
  • Ancyloxypha numitor Least Skipper
  • Hylephila phyleus Fiery Skipper
  • Polites peckius Peck's Skipper
  • Polites origenes Crossline Skipper
  • Pompeius verna Little Glassywing
  • Atalopedes campestris Sachem
  • Anatrytone logan Delaware Skipper
  • Problema byssus Byssus Skipper
  • Poanes zabulon Zabulon Skipper
  • Euphyes vestris Dun Skipper
  • Amblyscirtes hegon Pepper and Salt Skipper
  • Amblyscirtes vialis Common Roadside Skipper
  • Amblyscirtes belli Bell's Roadside Skipper
  • Lerodea eufala Eufala Skipper



Dragonflies and Damselflies- 34 species

By Jane Walker

The following is a list of odonate species for Washington University's Tyson Research Center. Species listed are of the suborders ANISOPTERA (dragonflies) and ZYGOPTERA (damselflies), and reflect the core representatives at Tyson through July 21, 1999. [Updated 2004]. The dragonfly species follow the nomenclature in A Manual of Dragonflies of North America (ANISOPTERA), by J. G. Needham and M. J. Westfall, Jr. and Dragonflies of the Florida Peninsula, Bermuda and the Bahamas by S. W. Dunkle. The damselfly species follow the nomenclature in Damselflies of North America by M. J. Westfall, Jr. and M. L. May and Damselflies of Florida, Bermuda and the Bahamas by S. W. Dunkle. All species listed have voucher specimens.


Class: Insecta, Order: Odonata

Suborder: Zygoptera

Family: Calopterygidae
  • Calopteryx maculata Ebony Jewelwing
  • Hetaerina americana American Rubyspot
Family: Lestidae
  • Archilestes grandis Great Spreadwing
  • Lestes disjunctus australiensis Common Spreadwing
Family: Coenagrionidae
  • Argia apicalis Blue-fronted Dancer
  • Argia moesta Powdered Dancer
  • Enallagma aspersum Azure Bluet
  • Enallagma basidens Double-striped Bluet
  • Enallagma civile Familiar Bluet
  • Ischnura hastata Citrine Forktail
  • Ischnura posita Fragile Forktail
  • Ischnura verticalis Eastern Forktail


Suborder: Anisoptera

Family: Aeschnidae
  • Anax junius Common Green Darner
  • Aeschna umbrosa Shadow Darner
  • Epiaeschna heros Swamp Darner
Family: Gomphidae
  • Arigomphus submedianus Jade Clubtail
  • Arigomphus villosipes Unicorn Clubtail
Family: Macromiidae
  • Macromia illinoiensis Illinois River Cruiser
Family: Corduliidae
  • Epitheca cynosura Common Baskettail
Family: Libellulidae
  • Erythemis simplicicollis Eastern Pondhawk
  • Ladona deplanata
  • Libellula cynaea Spangled Skimmer
  • Libellula incesta Slaty Skimmer
  • Libellula luctuosa Widow Skimmer
  • Libellula pulchella Twelve-spotted Skimmer
  • Pachydiplax longipennis Blue Dasher
  • Pantala flavencens Wandering Glider
  • Pantala hymenea Spot-winged Glider
  • Perithemis tenera Eastern Amberwing
  • Plathemis (formerly Libellula) lydia Common Whitetail
  • Sympetrum ambiguum Blue-faced Meadowhawk
  • Sympetrum corruptum Variegated Meadowhawk
  • Sympetrum rubicundulum Ruby Meadowhawk
  • Tramea lacerata Black Saddlebags



Grasshoppers and Allies- 32 species

By Suzanne Greenlee, Riley, and Hildreth, 1997 and 1999:

Family: Acrididae
  • Arphia sulphurea Sulfur Wing
  • Arphia xanthoptera Autumn Yellow-Winged Grasshopper
  • Chloealtis conspersa Sprinkled Grasshopper
  • Dendrotettix quercus Post Oak Grasshopper
  • Dicromorpha viridus Short-Winged Green Grasshopper
  • Dissosteira carolina Carolina Black-Wing Grasshopper
  • Hadrotettix trifasciatus Three-Banded Range Grasshopper
  • Hippiscus ocelote Wrinkled Grasshopper
  • Melanoplus femurrubrum Red-Legged Grasshopper
  • Melanoplus gracilis Graceful Grasshopper
  • Melanoplus keeleri Keeler's Grasshopper
  • Melanoplus ponderosus Ponderous Grasshopper
  • Mermiria bivittata Mermiria Grasshopper
  • Pardalophora apiculata Coral-Winged Grasshopper
  • Spharagemon bolli Sulfur Wing
  • Syrbula admirabilis Handsome Grasshopper
  • Trachyrhachis kiowa Kiowa Range Grasshopper
Family: Gryllidae
  • Eunemobius carolinus Carolina Ground Cricket
  • Hapithus agitator Restless Bush Cricket
  • Phyllopalpus pulchellus Handsome Bush Cricket
Family: Tettigoniidae
  • Amblycorpha oblongifolia Oblong Winged Katydid
  • Conocephalus brevipennis Short-Winged Meadow Katydid
  • Microcentrum rhombifolium Angle-Winged Katydid
  • Neoconocephalus retusus Round-Tipped Conehead
  • Neoconocephalus robustus Robust Conehead
  • Orchelimum nigripes Black-Legged Meadow Katydid
  • Orchelimum silvaticum Woodland Meadow Katydid
  • Orchelimum vulgare Common Meadow Katydid
  • Pterophylla camellifolia Northern True Katydid
  • Scudderia curvicauda Curve-Tailed Katydid
  • Scudderia furcata Fork-Tailed Bush Katydid
Family: Tetrigidae
  • Tettigidea lateralis Black-Sided Pygmy Grasshopper



Hymenoptera of Tyson Research Center

Updated: December 1998
James H. Hunt

Listed here are Hymenoptera known to occur at Washington University's Tyson Research Center. The Center is a 2,000 acre, mostly forested tract in southwest St. Louis Co., Missouri, between the communities of Eureka and Valley Park; latitude = 38o31'15"N, longitude = 90o33'15"W. Inclusion on this list is based on collection records plus a few sight records. The collection is currently in the Museum of Natural History, Department of Biology, University of Missouri-St. Louis. The list at present is probably about 20% of a reasonably complete basic list: Species richness of Ichneumonidae could rival or exceed that of Braconidae; two species-rich aculeate taxa. Sphecidae and Pompilidae, are represented here by only a few determined species, and two other species-rich aculeate taxa, Formicidae and Apoidea, have scarcely been looked at.

The number of specimens in the collection is given here for each taxon; numbers generally are not representative of actual or relative abundance. When numbers of specimens are given both for a family and for species within that family, the number for the family is of unsorted/unidentified specimens.

Number of Specimens:
Family: Xyelidae 1
Family: Argidae 1
Family: Tenthredinidae 1
Family: Pergidae 1
Family: Stephanidae 1
Family: Evaniidae 21
Family: Aulacidae 1
Family: Gasteruptiidae 5
Family: Braconidae:  
      Agathis sp. 1 1
      Agathis sp. 2 1
      Aleiodes nolophanae (Ashmead) 12
      Aleiodes terminalis Cresson 1
      Aleiodes n. sp. nr. aciculatus Cresson 4
      Aleiodes n. sp. 2 nr. burrus Cresson 1
      Aliolus sp. 1 2
      Aliolus sp. 2 13
      Aliolus sp. 3 1
      Aliolus sp. 4 1
      Apanteles sp. 1 14
      Apanteles sp. 2 1
      Apanteles sp. 3 8
      Apanteles sp. 4 17
      Apanteles sp. 5 2
      Apanteles sp. 6 1
      Aphaereta sp. 1 1
      Aphaereta sp. 2 2
      Aridelus sp. 1 1
      Ascogaster argentifrons (Provancher) 19
      Ascogaster impatientis Shaw 3
      Aspilota sp. 1 6
      Aspilota sp. 2 2
      Aspilota sp. 3 2
      Aspilota sp. 4 1
      Bracon sp. 1 1
      Bracon sp. 2 2
      Chelonus sp. 1 2
      Chelonus sp. 2 3
      Chorebus sp. 1 1
      Chorebus sp. 2 3
      Chorebus sp. 3 1
      Cotesia sp. 1 11
      Cotesia sp. 2 11
      Cratospila sp. 1 1
      Cyanopterus sp. 1 2
      Digonogastra sp. 1 3
      Diolcogaster sp. 1 1
      Diospilus sp. 1 1
      Dolichogenidea sp. 1 238
      Doryctes sp. 1 1
      Earinus sp. 1 2
      Eubazus sp. 1 3
      Glyptapanteles sp. 1 7
      Glyptapanteles sp. 2 6
      Heterospilus sp. 1 2
      Heterospilus sp. 2 7
      Heterospilus sp. 3 3
      Heterospilus sp. 4 4
      Heterospilus sp. 5 2
      Heterospilus sp. 6 3
      Heterospilus sp. 7 1
      Heterospilus sp. 8 1
      Heterospilus sp. 9 1
      Heterospilus sp. 10 1
      Heterospilus sp. 11 1
      Homolobus sp. 1 10
      Leptodrepana flaviceps (Ashmead) 2
      Leptodrepana n. sp. nr. orians Shaw 1
      Macrocentrus sp. 1 17
      Macrocentrus sp. 2 2
      Macrocentrus sp. 3 1
      Meteorus sp. 1 17
      Meteorus sp. 2 2
      Meteorus sp. 3 1
      Meteorus sp. 4 1
      Microctonus sp. 1 1
      Microgaster sp. 1 5
      Microgaster sp. 2 15
      Microplitis sp. 1 28
      Microplitis sp. 2 32
      Microplitis sp. 3 16
      Mirax sp. 1 1
      Nealiolus sp. 1 1
      Ontsira sp. 1 4
      Ontsira sp. 2 1
      Ontsira sp. 3 1
      Opius sp. 1 2
      Opius sp. 2 1
      Opius sp. 3 10
      Opius sp. 4 3
      Opius sp. 5 7
      Opius sp. 6 1
      Orgilus sp. 1 5
      Orthostigma sp. 1 4
      Orthostigma sp. 2 4
      Pambolus sp. 1 3
      Parahormius sp. 1 2
      Peristenus sp. 1 2
      Peristenus sp. 2 1
      Phaenocarpa sp. 1 8
      Phaenocarpa sp. 2 2
      Phaenocarpa sp. 3 1
      Pholetesor bedelliae (Viereck) 3
      Pholetesor ornigis (Weed) 1
      Protapanteles sp. 1 27
      Promicrogaster sp. 1 1
      Rhaconotus sp. 1 1
      Rhysipolis sp. 1 1
      Schizoprymnus sp. 1 1
      Spathius sp. 1 4
Family: Ichneumonidae 100s
Family: Eupelmidae 2
Family: Pteromalidae 3
Family: Torymidae 6
Cynipoidea 16
Family: Pelicinidae:  
      Pelicinus polyturator (Drury) 2
Family: Diapriidae 18
Family: Dryinidae 15
Family: Bethylidae 25
Family: Chrysididae 52
Family: Scoliidae 1
      Scolia bicincta Fabricius 11
Family: Sapygidae 11
Family: Tiphiidae  
      Myzinum -cinctum (Fabricius) 1
      Myzinum obscurum (Fabricius) 1
Family: Mutillidae 10
Family: Pompilidae: 50
      Anoplius sp. 1 1
      Auploplus sp. 1 2
      Ceropales brevicornis Patton 6
      Cryptochelius attenuatum Banks 1
      Entypus fulvicornis (Cresson) 1
      Entypus unifasciatus (Say) 2
      Pepsis elegans Lepeletier 1
      Pompilus scelestus Cresson 16
      Psthorapsis sp. 1 2
      Psthorapsis sp. 2 1
      Psthorapsis sp. 3 1
      Tachypompilus sp. 1 3
Family: Rhopalosomatidae 37
Family: Formicidae 12
Family: Myrmicinae  
      Aphaenogaster sp. 1 sight record
Family: Formicinae  
      Camponotus spp sight record
      Formica spp. sight record
Family: Vespidae  
Family: Eumeninae 15
      Ancistrocerus antilope (Panzer) 1
      Eumenes fraternus Say 2
      Euodynerus foraminatus (Saussure) 1
      Monobia quadridens (L.) 10s
      Zethus sp. 1 1
Family: Polistinae  
      Polistes annularis (L.) 1
      Polistes carolina (L.) 4
      Polistes dorsalis (Fabricius) 20
      Polistes exclamans Viereck photo
      Polistes fuscatus (Fabricius) 37
      Polistes metricus Say 20
      Polistes perplexus Cresson 1
      Mischocyttarus sp. 1 3
Family: Vespinae  
      Dolichovespula maculata (L.) 10s
      Vespula germanica (Fabricius) 1
      Vespula maculifrons (Buysson) 6
Family: Sphecidae 23
      Ammophila aureonotata Cameron 23
      Ammophila sp. 1 1
      Chalybion californicum (Saussure) 7
      Chalybion zimmermanni Dahlbom 1
      Dolichurus sp. 1 1
      Sceliphron caementarium (Drury) 23
      Tachytes sp. 1 1
      Trypoxylon politum Say sight record
Family: Nyssonidae  
      Sphecius speciosus (Drury) 1
Family: Apiformes 32
Family: Megachilidae 10
Family: Halictidae  
      Augochlorella spp. 30
      Halictus spp.  
Family: Anthophoridae  
      Xylocopa virginica (L.) 3
Family: Apidae  
      Bombus spp. 2
      Apis mellifera L. 1

Noteworthy taxa:

Mischocyttarus sp. 1 (Vespidae, Polistinae): U.S. record specimens. Mischocyttarus is the most species-rich genus of Neotropical social wasps. Although a few species are recorded from the U.S., none are known within 600 miles of Missouri, and this is not one of the known U.S. species. The three specimens were taken in a malaise trap in early October, 1998, and they must have come from a nest/colony near the trap. The founders of the Tyson population were probably imported to Tyson on a wolf or raptor cage. Whether the foundress(es) came in spring 1998 or whether the species has been established at Tyson for longer than a year is unknown. Intensive searching for Mischocyttarus will be undertaken in 1999.

Polistes exclamans (Vespidae, Polistinae): long-term abundance variation. <Polistes exclamans was never mentioned in the voluminous writings on wasps of the St. Louis region by Phil Rau, spanning the years from the mid 1910's to mid 1940's. It was abundant, though, when Mary Jane West-Eberhard visited Rau's field sites in the mid 1960's, and it was a study species for J. H. Hunt at Tyson in the 1970's. However, Hunt has seen no P. exclamans in St. Louis County, including Tyson, since ca. 1989. [ref: Hunt, J. H. and D. P. Sanders, 1999, Distributional notes on some Missouri social wasps (Hymenoptera: Polistes, Vespa, Dolichovespula, Vespula), Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society of America, in press.]

Chalybion zimmermanni (Sphecidae): Missouri listed taxon. Tyson is one of only two localities in the state from which this species is known; observations at Tyson were reported in: Landes, D. A. and J. H. Hunt, 1988, Chalybion zimmermanni zimmermanni Dahlbom in a mixed sleeping aggregation with Chalybion californicum (Saussure) in Missouri (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae), Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 61:230-231.

Introduced taxa:

Mischocyttarus sp. 1 (Vespidae, Polistinae)

Vespula germanica (Vespidae, Vespinae) ref: Hunt, J. H. and D. P. Sanders, 1999, Distributional notes on some Missouri social wasps (Hymenoptera: Polistes, Vespa, Dolichovespula, Vespula), Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society of America, in press.

Apis mellifera (Apidae)


Significant contribution to the collection on which this Hymenoptera list is based was made by Dr. James B. Whitfield, a systematist specializing in Braconidae. He collected and determined most of the specimens of Symphyta and non-aculeate Apocrita. Most of the specimens and determinations of Aculeata reflect the efforts of J. H. Hunt, but noteworthy additions to the collection were made by two students, Michael S. Arduser in the mid-1980's and, in fall 1998, John Eimes.

[Hymenoptera section contributed by James H. Hunt]



Beetles of Tyson Research Center:

Pelidnota punctata Grapevine Beetle

phone: (314)-935-8430
fax: (314)-935-8433
6750 Tyson Valley Road
Eureka MO 63025